and maps: Links to a great many miniature paintings, etc.
from the period: *Columbia
Univ.*. Links to a great many period maps: *Columbia
William College, in Calcutta, is founded in 1800--on the
first anniversary of the conquest of Seringapatam--to provide language
instruction to the East India Company's recruits; it publishes some of
the early printed works of Urdu and Hindi literature. Its redoubtable
instructor, John Gilchrist, has been accused of artificially separating
Hindi and Urdu, and of (semi-)inventing the name "Urdu." Discussion: *S.
Ranjit Singh (1780-1839) is crowned in Lahore in 1801.
and a brilliant leader, he shapes a powerful, inclusive Sikh kingdom in
the Punjab that earns the loyalty of non-Sikhs as well-- and becomes a
serious obstacle to British expansionist designs. Discussion: *Tribune
about sikhs*; a video: *sikh
net*; an online museum: *faqir
Ram Mohan Roy (1772-1833): This great Bengali
educated in Persian, Arabic, and Sanskrit, leaves the service of the
to become the "Father of Modern India." He translates a number of
into English and Bengali, and presents his own version of the teachings
of Jesus; he opposes sati, press censorship, and British support for
studies. In 1828 he founds the Brahmo Samaj. Some of his writings: *SDSU*
(scroll down in the index).
"Minute on Education" (1835): Thomas Babington Macaulay
during his term as a member of the Supreme Council in India, expresses
his (in)famous views on the proper form that Indian education should
in his "Minute on Education" (*CU*).
Much more on Macaulay and his other writings about India: *Columbia
Univ.*. An analysis of how Indian education looked at mid-century:
the "Educational Dispatch of 1854" (*MSSU*).
Asadullah Khan "Ghalib" (1797-1869): One of the two
poets of the classical Urdu ghazal (and a great Persian ghazal poet
he's always frustrated by his inability to find readers who can truly
what he's doing. Intellectual thrills and chills, mystical and romantic
subtleties, astonishment and delight-- there's simply nothing like his
poetry. His work has brought forth *A
Desertful of Roses*. (*Routes*)
Shah "Zafar" (r.1837-58 ) is destined to be the last
emperor. His domain in practice is little more than the Red Fort
and he lives as a British pensioner with steadily eroding power. He
Urdu poetry, and has the fine poet Zauq, and the great poet Ghalib, as
his ustads. After the rebellion of 1857, he is blamed for the revolt,
exiled to Burma, and dies there.
First Anglo-Afghan War (1838-42), a wildly ill-conceived
and pointless invasion, ends in the complete loss of a large
army; it sets the stage for many decades of violent skirmishes,
warfare, and endless political turbulence in the border regions between
Afghanistan and India (*J.
M. Hare*; *Archibald
W. E. Holdsworth*; *2nd
War pictures*; *T. L. Pennell*. (*Routes*)
is sold by the British in 1846, for 7.5 million rupees,
a petty Hindu feudal chief who has helped them defeat the Sikhs. The
are terrible all around. Discussion: Pankaj Mishra in the NY Review of
3*. Further information: *Kashmir
Drew, 1877*. (*Routes*)
Gouramma of Coorg converts to Christianity (1852), at the
age of 11, under the auspices of Queen Victoria herself-- in the kind
episode that strikes some Indians as part of an ominous plan for the
On the history of Coorg: *Imperial
is seized and the last Navab exiled to Calcutta (1856);
Gazetteer* explains the thinking behind this move. It surely
perhaps even centrally, to the outbreak of the Rebellion in the
Rebellion of 1857 starts as a military mutiny, but soon
a much wider revolt. Its outbreak comes as a terrible shock to almost
and relations between Englishmen and Indians are never the same again.
A colonial perspective: *Imperial
as imperial power (1858): After the Rebellion has been
the East India Company is dissolved, and Parliament takes formal
of the governance of India: *Imperial
Univ.*. The loyal princes are rewarded, and are confirmed in their
hereditary powers (*Henry
Berkeley*); no further "native states" are ever annexed by the
Images of imperial Delhi: *ANU*.
is founded (1866), and its theology becomes increasingly
influential in South Asian Islam. Discussion: *Barbara
Dalrymple*. The Dar ul-'Ulum's own website: *dar
ul-uloom*. Its instructors include Maulana Ashraf 'Ali Thanavi
author of "Bihishti Zevar," or "Heavenly Jewels" (c.1900), an
popular advice manual for women (*one
Arya Samaj is founded (1875) by Swami Dayanand Sarasvati
(1825-1883), and is still very influential today. The Swami takes a
"back to the Vedas" approach (*An
Introduction to the Vedas*), and is very critical of Christianity
Islam. He favors the caste system-- but wants it to be based on
like personal merit. His most influential work: the *Satyartha
Prakasha* ("Light of the Truth").
Ramakrishna (1836-86) of Bengal, who experiences the
union of Radha and Krishna, and claims an empathy with all religions,
many followers (*Max
Mueller*). His most famous disciple, the promising Swami
(1863-1902), makes a tremendous hit at the *"Parliament
of World Religions"* held in Chicago in 1893 (*ramakrishna*).
(1876), a famous map of Banaras: "The mirror of Kashi, that is the fine
and excellent picture of the city of Varanasi as told in the Linga,
Nandi, Skanda, Garuda, and Agni Puranas, along with the names and
of deities and waterplaces." Presentation: *Univ.
of Heidelberg*. On Banaras: *Sandria
B. Freitag*. On Hinduism: *William
R. Pinch*; *Pankaj
Dutt (1856-77), in her brief life, becomes the mother of
Indian poetry in English. A Bengali raised in France and tutored by her
father, she is multilingual (translating from French, German, and
as well as a poet in her own right. Her early death from consumption
cuts off a strong talent. Samples of her work: *Univ.
becomes Empress of India (1877): Many congratulations
duly offered. A report on one such gathering to mark the occasion: *Internet
Sourcebook*. Some high points of her reign: *victorian
station*. A colonial view: *Imperial
M.A.O. College opens (1878): Later to become Aligarh
University, the Aligarh Mohammedan-Anglo-Oriental College becomes the
goal in the life of the remarkable reformer Sir Sayyid Ahmad Khan
U.*). The *AMU home
page*. A look at the campus today: *Shahid
H.'s photos*. (*Routes*)
Blavatsky visits: She tours India in 1879-80, and
its mysteries in "From the Caves and Jungles of Hindostan" (*Columbia
U.*) To her great regret, she's unable to integrate Swami Dayanand
and the Arya Samaj into the Theosophy movement (*victorian
and Hali: In the 1880's, shaken by the aftermath of 1857,
Muhammad Husain "Azad" (1830-1910), in *Aab-e
hayaat* ("Water of Life," 1880), and Altaf Husain "Hali"
introduce into Urdu literary criticism the concept of "natural
Indian National Congress is formed (1885), initially
the organizational efforts of a retired British civil servant, Allan
Hume (1829-1912). Its early years are relatively quiet; then, of
Gandhi comes along. A complete list of its presidents: *congress
sandesh*. Background material: *Sources
of Indian Tradition*. (*Routes*)
Kipling: Born in India, Kipling (1865-1936) writes a
of extremely popular poems and stories, both romanticizing a timeless
and justifying imperialism-- and at his best, doing much more as well.
Children today still enjoy "The Jungle Book" (1894), and his
the novel "Kim" (1901), is still greatly cherished. His work: *Project
Gutenberg*. His life: *wikipedia*.
Was Kipling?"*. (*Routes*)
voices begin to be heard: With increasing literacy (even
for women and common people), and new means of both travel (trains,
roads) and communication (postal service, telegraph, newspapers), there
begins to be a sense of public opinion-- and both Congress and the Raj
have to take note. (*Routes*)